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2003 Annual Report on Air Quality
State of Vermont

Ozone • PM2.5 • PM10 • Carbon Monoxide • Nitrogen Dioxide • Sulfur Dioxide • Lead

Ozone

Vermont operated two ozone (O3) monitoring sites in 2002; one at the Proctor Maple Research Facility in Underhill and the other in Bennington. The 8-hour average ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) is 0.08 parts per million (ppm) and is assessed relative to the running 3-year average of the annual 4th maximum daily maximum 8-hour average. Based on this criteria, both Underhill and Bennington are 100% of the NAAQS (0.08 ppm) for 2002; this is in compliance with the standard, which must not be exceeded. The highest 8-hour concentration of ozone in 2002, 0.096 ppm, was recorded at the Proctor Maple Research site. The highest recorded 8-hour concentration of ozone at the Bennington site was 0.091 ppm. The highest 1-hour concentration of ozone in 2002, 0.125 ppm, was recorded at the Proctor Maple Research Facility while the highest recorded 1-hour concentration of ozone at the Bennington site was 0.124 ppm.

 

PM2.5

Vermont maintained five monitoring sites that sampled for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microns (PM2.5). PM2.5 sampling in 2002 was conducted in Barre, Bennington, Burlington, Rutland and Underhill. Vermont began PM2.5 sampling in 1999. The annual average PM2.5 standard is assessed relative to the three-year average of the respective annual averages. The PM2.5 annual average NAAQS is 15 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3). Compliance was assessed at all five sites. Three-year averages ranged from 7.1 µg/m3 in Underhill (47% of NAAQS) to 11.6µg/m3 in Rutland (77% of NAAQS). The first complete Burlington assessment was able to be made since three consecutive complete years were obtained. The three-year average for Burlington is 9.3µg/m3 or 62% of NAAQS. The PM2.5 24-hour average standard is assessed relative to the three-year average of the annual 98th percentile sample concentration. Given Vermont's 1-in-3 day sampling schedule, the annual 98th percentile concentration is the annual third 24-hour maximum concentration. The PM2.5 24-hour standard is 65 µg/m3., Compliance was assessed at four sites and the averages ranged from 26 µg/m3 in Underhill (40% of NAAQS) to 33 µg/m3 in Rutland (51% of NAAQS). The first complete Burlington assessment resulted in a three-year average of 28 µg/m3 or 43% of standard.

 

PM10

In 2002, Vermont maintained five monitoring sites that sampled for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microns (PM10). These sites include Barre, Bennington, Burlington, Rutland and Underhill. The highest 24-hour concentration was recorded at the Barre site, which recorded a maximum 24-hour PM10 concentration of 83 µg/m3. Rutland recorded the highest annual PM10 average (weighted) concentration of all Vermont sites, 18 µg/m3. These concentrations are well below the former PM10 annual maximum 24-hour average NAAQS of 150 µg/m3 and the PM10 annual average NAAQS of 50 µg/m3. The lowest recorded PM10 annual average for 2002 was recorded Proctor Maple Research facility monitoring site in Underhill (10 µg/m3). The lowest recorded maximum 24-hour concentration was recorded in Burlington and Underhill (70 µg/m3). The maximum 24-hour concentrations observed can be associated with the Quebec forest fires on July 7, 2002. Over the past five years all five PM10 monitoring sites have recorded particulate matter concentrations below the former annual and 24-hour NAAQS. Yearly variability in the data is common, in part determined by meteorology, transport of particulate matter from distant sources, and changes in the emission strength of local sources.

 

Carbon Monoxide

During 2002, Vermont operated one Carbon Monoxide (CO) site in Rutland. No exceedance of the NAAQS for CO was recorded. The highest 1st and 2nd maximum 8-hour concentrations of CO recorded at Rutland were both 2.3 ppm. The five-year trend line shows only small fluctuations of the second highs with levels between 24% and 28% of the 8-hour NAAQS of 9 ppm. The Burlington CO site was not in operation in 2002; however it is now in operation for 2003. CO measured in Burlington from 1995 through 1999 resulted in second 8-hour maximums ranging between 24% and 37% of the standard. In 2002, the maximum one-hour concentration of CO recorded was 4.1 ppm.

 

Nitrogen Dioxide

Vermont operated one nitrogen dioxide (NO2) monitoring site in Rutland in 2002. No exceedance of the NAAQS for NO2 was recorded. Historical data for the most recent five years (1998-2002) indicate that the annual average concentrations of NO2 have remained relatively stable. During this time period, the annual averages for the Rutland site ranged from 0.011 ppm to 0.013 ppm NO2. The Burlington NO2 site was not in operation in 2002; however it is now in operation for 2003. During the period of 1996 to 2000, the annual average NO2 concentrations ranged from 0.017 ppm to 0.018 ppm in Burlington. The five-year annual NO2 average trend in Burlington and Rutland ranged between 21% to 34% of the NAAQS. In 2002, the maximum one-hour concentration of NO2 recorded was 0.068 ppm.

 

Sulfur Dioxide

In 2002, Vermont maintained one sulfur dioxide (SO2) monitoring site in Rutland. No exceedance or violation of the NAAQS for sulfur dioxide was recorded. The highest 24-hour average concentration of SO2 in Rutland in 2002 was 0.036 ppm. The highest 3-hour and 1-hour average SO2 concentrations were 0.086 and 0.112 ppm, respectively. The annual average of 0.005 ppm in Rutland for 2002 is 17% of the NAAQS. For compliance purposes, the annual second maximum 24-hour average of 0.028 ppm is 20% of the NAAQS. The annual second maximum 3-hour average of 0.051 ppm is 10% of the NAAQS. Five years (1998-2002) of historical SO2 data indicate little variability in SO2 concentrations in Rutland (from 0.006 ppm annual average SO2 in 1998 to 0.005 ppm in 1999 through 2002).

 

Lead

Vermont is not required to measure the concentration of lead in ambient air. No measurement data are available. [Note: The Vermont Air Pollution Control Division discontinued monitoring lead concentrations in Vermont in 1989.]

 

   
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