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Earth Resources and Energy

  Geothermal Energy
Geothermal Technologies Program, US Dept. of Energy
Vermont Geothermal Study - Water well temperature profiles
Vermont Geothermal Studies - Water well logging process
National Geothermal Data System (NGDS)
Geothermal Energy Association
The Future of Geothermal Energy (14.1 mb pdf), MIT, 2006
Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont
Outside the Loop - Geothermal Heat Pump newsletter
New England Geothermal Professional Association
EXPLORATION WELLS, 1956-1984 Oil and Gas
Click here for a list of exploration oil and gas wells drilled in Vermont. View the map.
See Photogallery 19 for pictures of the Yandow well
Northern Vermont-Southern Quebec: Utica Shale Equivalents, Stratigraphic and Structural Relations by L. Becker, M. Gale and J. Kim
Click here for maps of shale plays in the US (US Energy Information Administration)

USGS National Oil and Gas Assessment
Vermont Statutes, Title 29: Natural Gas and Oil Conservation
  CO2 Sequestration
  National Assessment of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources, USGS, 2013
Vermont Bedrock and Its Potential for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide , VGS, 2011
CO2 Mineral Sequestration
Granite, marble, slate, talc, verde antique, soapstone, schist, sand and gravel, crushed limestone, marble, dolomite, granite, quartzite and slate are all products of Vermont.

In 2009, the estimated
non-fuel mineral production for Vermont was $122 million ( USGS Mineral Industry Survey) as compared with nearly $117 million in 2007 and 2008. In 2009, Vermont ranked nationally 5th in dimension stone production by tonnage and 39th in production of crushed stone. For information on employment, wages and production, visit the National Mining Association web site.

USGS on-line information about active and inactive quarries in Vermont can be obtained from the USGS Mineral Resource Data site search function or from the main page for GIS downloadable data sets.

Act 250 information for recently permitted quarries and sand and gravel pits is available on-line.

For more sand pit and quarry information please see:
Guidance for sand and gravel pits, rock quarries and reclamation plans (VGS)
Construction general permits (Watershed Management Division)
State of Vermont Permit Handbook
Blasting Best Management Practices (Waste Management Division)
Example of a blasting plan from from a 2013 project in VT
OSHA 1910.109 - Explosives and blasting agents
Federal Highway Administration, 1992, Rock Blasting and Overbreak Control , 434 pages.

The Mineral Resources Map (click on image) shows active and inactive occurrences, prospects and producers. Data is from the VT Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS), 1998.

The U.S. Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration reports on mine activity. In 2000, full time operating mines included 2 marble (dimension stone), 25 slate (dimension stone), 1 granite (dimension stone), 1 talc and soapstone, 7 limestone (crushed rock), and 6 sand and gravel operations. 142 mines were listed with an intermittent operation status. Of these mines, 89 were sand and gravel operation.

Industrial Minerals of Vermont- 200 Years and Going Strong by Conrad and Vanacek (1990, updated in 2005 by King) summarizes the industry.
Crushed Rock Resources Map (click on image) - Vermont Crushed Rock Resources showing inactive and active occurrences, prospects and producers. Data from the Vermont Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS), 1998.
Construction Aggregates Demand in the New England States, New England Governor's Conference, Inc., 1992
Sand and Gravel Resources Map (click on image) - Sand and Gravel Resource Map of Vermont. Data from Sand and Gravel Resources of Vermont, 1993, New England Governors Conference. Click here for sand and gravel pit guidelines of the VGS (2002) and see construction general permits. Also, see Highway Construction Surveys 1957-1980 and Vermont Soils Information (USDA)
Dimension Stone (Click on image) - Active and inactive dimension stone occurrences, prospects and producers. Data from the Vermont Mineral Resource Data system (MRDS), 1998.
Some links: Vermont Mining - a look at mines from air photos.
Stone Quarries and Beyond
Click here for a recent article about Vermont's quarry industry
Metallic Resources of Vermont (Click on image)showing active and inactive occurrences, prospects and producers. Data from the Vermont Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS), 1998.
Gold in Vermont pamphlet (pdf)






























Generalized Geologic 
	Map of Vermont - 1970 - click for larger map image

VT DEC Geology and Mineral Resources Division 1 National Life Drive, Davis 2  Montpelier, VT  05620-3920 
Telephone: 802-522-5210

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