WMD home
dec home > wm&pd home > c&d home
Construction & Demolition
    Contractors & Homeowners
    Architectural Waste
Hazardous Waste   Management
Household Hazardous   Waste
Product Stewardship & Take-Back Programs
Salvage Yard Program
Sites Management
Solid Waste
Underground Storage   Tanks
Universal Recycling
Waste Prevention

Construction & Demolition


Every year, construction and demolition (C&D) projects in Vermont generate approximately 50,800 tons of waste material, accounting for 10% of residential waste and 15% of industrial, commercial, and institutional waste*. C&D waste is produced from the construction, repair, and demolition of structures of all sizes--from backyard sheds to large apartment complexes, roads, and bridges. Most often, these materials can be separated and then recycled or salvaged into useful products or beautiful new structures.

Finding ways to minimize the generation of C&D waste coming from your project, or creatively reusing or recycling as much of it as possible, is a winning strategy. Click below to start planning for waste reduction!

*View the 2013 Vermont Waste Composition Study, DSM Environmental.

C&D Strategies Architectural Waste Requirements Resources Page

Quick Links To:

  • find project planning & waste reduction strategies,
  • design tips and material calculators,
  • review requirements for Act 175 (architectural waste diversion),
  • resources for purchasing high-quality salvaged materials for your new project.

Identifying your project type can help you plan for managing materials on-site.

1. New Construction

Recycling is easiest on new construction projects. Large quantities of discarded materials, such as lumber, can be kept separate from disposable wastes. Recycling even one material may divert the majority of your waste. Keep in mind that the recyclable materials generated on-site will change during the life of the project. Wood and steel may appear first as the structural work is done, but corrugated cardboard won't show up in large quantities until the end of the project when fixtures are installed.

2. Remodeling

Evaluate the salvage and recycling opportunities for your remodeling project based on the quantities of scrap materials that will be produced, and the time necessary to separate the materials. You may be able to make money, get a tax deduction, or [at the very least] save on project disposal fees by carefully removing building components and fixtures for salvage. On the front-end, when you are designing and planning a new look your home, consider shopping around for salvaged materials and fixtures instead of buying new. Reuse building stores carry high-quality salvaged materials that are unique, full of character, and often lower cost than virgin material.

3. Deconstruction:

A number of Vermont deconstruction companies and used building materials/salvage stores are available to consult project leaders about deconstruction project inquiries. The project planning process may proceed as follows:

  • Experienced salvagers may walk through a building with you to determine what fixtures and materials have value for resale or reuse. Plan to remove these salvageable items as early in the project as possible, and allow time for this on the front end of the schedule.
  • The remaining materials can be divided into two categories: those that can be recycled, and those that must be disposed. Consult a local construction & demolition debris hauler, recycling center, or deconstruction service to see which products may be recycled, and plan to have roll-off containers on-site to place the separated materials into.
  • Look for salvage opportunities as the project progresses. For example, carpet removal may reveal hardwood flooring that is salvageable. Allow workers to reuse scraps or make them available through a reuse center.
  • Require specifications for reuse in the bid documents. Specifications could include a requirement to "salvage reusable materials for resale, for storage for use on future projects or return reusable items (e.g., pallets or unused products) to the material suppliers."
  • Compare estimates for your demolition bids to your deconstruction bids. You may also want to consider partial salvage, such as salvaging the more valuable fixtures and materials and demolishing the remainder.

Are there any C&D materials that are banned from landfill disposal in Vermont?

Yes. Although there is not a broad landfill ban on all construction & demolition debris, there are specific bans on certain materials that represent a part of the C&D waste stream. The specific materials that are banned have generally come into State law because of the toxicity of the material, or because it represents a significant volume of the C&D waste steam and has a known market for recycling or re-purposing.

Specific materials with a landfill ban are:

  • Includes: refrigerators, washing machines, dryers, ranges, water heaters, dishwashers, and freezers.
  • Includes: unused oil and latex paint, paint thinner, paint remover, stains, and varnishes. See PaintCare for Vermont drop-off locations.
  • CLEAN WOOD WASTE (by July 1, 2016)
  • Includes: trees, untreated wood, and other natural debris such as tree stumps, brush, limbs, root mats, and logs.
  • ARCHITECTURAL WASTE (by January 1, 2015)
  • Includes: drywall, scrap metal, asphalt shingles, clean wood, plywood, or oriented strand board (OSB). NOTE: These materials are only banned from the landfill under certain project circumstances. See the Architectural Waste Requirements webpage to see if your project qualifies for mandatory recycling or reuse of these materials.



Department of Environmental Conservation

Waste Management & Prevention Division, Solid Waste Program

1 National Life Drive, Davis 1, Montpelier, VT 05620-3704

(802) 828-1138



Last updated:
VT DEC Waste Management & Prevention Division 1 National Life Drive - Davis 1  Montpelier, VT  05620-3704  Tele: 802-828-1138  Fax: 802-828-1011

State of Vermont Agencies & Depts.     Access Government 24/7     About Vermont.Gov     Privacy Policy  

A Vermont Government Website Copyright 2003 State of Vermont - All rights reserved